10. References and Bibliography

10.1 List of Figures

Figure 1: An excerpt of Scene 1 of Lost Highway (2003) by Olga Neuwirth, showing freely spoken text over the top of pre-recorded and live music
Figure 2: An excerpt from Ligeti’s Le Grande Macabre (1996) showing speech sounds delivered by string players with non-trained voices.
Figure 3: An excerpt of It’s Man or Monkey from Enno Poppe’s Interzone, showing the Speaker with complex rhythmic and pitch indications
Figure 4: Recitation 11 (1978) by Aperghis, showing the structuralist / formalistic approach to repetition and ordering.
Figure 5: An excerpt of vocal writing in Berio’s Laborintus II (1965), showing layering of many speech fragments
Figure 6: Scene 4 from 4.48 Psychosis showing an abstract array of numbers.
Figure 7: An excerpt from Scene 10 from 4.48 Psychosis showing a dialogue between patient and doctor/therapist.
Figure 8: An excerpt from Scene 15 from 4.48 Psychosis showing free verse with varied indentation and spacing.
Figure 9: An excerpt from Scene 19 from 4.48 Psychosis showing song-form verse , akin to a nursery rhyme.
Figure 10: An excerpt from Scene 22 from 4.48 Psychosis showing a list of positive statements.
Figure 11: An excerpt from Scene 24 from 4.48 Psychosis, the final scene, showing antiphonal verse.
Figure 12: a scene plan of 4.48 Psychosis showing treatment, duration, projection, surtitles and clicks.
Figure 13: Table showing pre-recorded text fragments and their corresponding sung vocal phrases in Scene 5A
Figure 14: Excerpt from Scene 5A showing Gwen’s part and the pre-recorded spoken cues
Figure 15: Table showing the division of Kane’s text for Scene 18 into seven pre-recorded spoken cues.
Figure 16: Gwen’s vocal line in Scene 18 showing cue points for pre-recorded spoken text
Figure 17: An excerpt of the score for Scene 14, showing the projection cue line, indicating the timing of each projected text fragment.
Figure 18: A excerpt of the piano part from the score for Scene 14, showing the two-part counterpoint employed for most of the scene and the projection cues to which it is aligned.
Figure 19: An excerpt of the score for Scene 14 showing baritone saxophone and string accompaniment to the phrase “Patient kept falling over, fainting and walking out in front of cars
Figure 20: Photo of the opening of Scene 14 in this production of 4.48 Psychosis. Photo © Stephen Cummiskey
Figure 21: First page of the original version of Scene 16, showing a sung chorus with descant and text-rhythms for snare drum and piccolo.
Figure 22: Diagram showing the three independent strands of Scene 11, with relative pitch and volume
Figure 23: Kane’s text for Scene 11, showing attribution of lines to three independent musical strands, and cuts.
Figure 24: An excerpt of vocal writing in Scene 3, showing sung ‘I‘ and spoken phrases
Figure 25: An excerpt of vocal writing in Scene 3 showing rhythmically-notated sung phrases.
Figure 26: An excerpt from Scene 3 showing overlapping vocal phrases and instrumental scoring
Figure 27: Excerpt from Scene 9 (draft version, b.9, Clare) showing the archetypal phrase structure for this scene.
Figure 28: Excerpt from Scene 9, first draft, showing the overlapping layering of phrases.
Figure 29: An excerpt of the final version of Scene 9, b.11–18, showing amendments to the original version that improve comprehension of spoken text.
Figure 30: The key used for the first section of Unleashed, to be memorised by singer and viola players.
Figure 31: excerpt of the final score of Unleashed showing the raised, sung words and some viola variations from the Key.
Figure 32: An excerpt from Scene 5B, vocal parts, showing two measured bars interrupting the stream-of-consciousness flow
Figure 33: An excerpt of the first draft of Scene 5B, showing the text-based vocal score with instrumental parts coordinated with the spoken text cue line
Figure 34: An excerpt (page 12) of the score for Skinner Box (Krunglevičius, 2010)
Figure 35: A photo showing annotations on the score of Skinner Box (Krunglevičius, 2010)
Figure 36: A photo from Scene 10 showing the stage right (doctor) and left (patient) positions of the two percussionists and the stage right projection location in use. Photo © Stephen Cummiskey
Figure 37: A table showing the instrumentation for the Percussion Dialogue scenes
Figure 38: Transcription of scene 6, page 1.
Figure 39: Scene 6 final version (percussion parts only), page 1
Figure 40: Transcription of scene 6, page 2.
Figure 41: Scene 6 final version (percussion parts only), page 2.


10.2. Catalogue of Supporting Materials

Supporting materials can be found here.

All paper-based materials can be found in the accompanying booklet of supporting materials.

SM.1 Video of the performance of 4.48 Psychosis, Saturday 28th May 2016, Lyric Theatre Hammersmith.
SM.2 Interview with Ted Huffman and Philip Venables by Samira Ahmed on Front Row, BBC Radio 4, 24th May 2016.
SM.3 Evans, G. L., 2016, The Composer as Auteur: Sarah Kane’s 4.48 Psychosis as an Opera (Unpublished). Conference paper given June 16th 2016 at the the Music Theatre Working Group, International Federation of Theatre Research Conference: ‘Presenting the Theatrical Past‘, Stockholm University, Sweden.
SM.4 Two articles written for the programme book for the production of the opera.
SM.4.1 Delgado-Garcia, C., Sing without hope, tender with trust.
SM.4.2 Fallas, J. A new kind of opera.
SM.5 A detailed version of the scene plan of 4.48 Psychosis. This was a working document for the composer during the composition process and a useful summary for the production team during rehearsals.
SM.6 A complete personnel list for the production.
SM.7 Selected working diagrams related to pre-compositional analysis of structure, narrative and dramaturgy in the source text
SM.8 Audio recordings of each scene in Year 3 workshops.
SM.8.1 Scene 3
SM.8.2 Scene 4
SM.8.3 Scene 5B
SM.8.4 Scenes 7 & 8
SM.8.5 Scene 9
SM.8.6 Scene 10
SM.8.7 Scene 13
SM.8.8 Scene 15
SM.8.9 Scene 16
SM.9 Recordings of the two voiceover options in Scene 14
SM.9.1 Christian Burgess (male voice)
SM.9.2 Susanna Hurrell (cast member, female voice)
SM.10 The full score for the first version of Scene 16
SM.11 The voiceover recording of Sarah Fahie screaming the text of Scene 16.
SM.12 The full score for the first version of Scene 9
SM.13 The full score for Scene 1 of Unleashed (Philip Venables & Nick Blackburn, 2012, unpublished)
SM.14 A video of an excerpt of Scene 1 of Unleashed.
SM.15 The full score of Illusions (2015, University of York Music Press Ltd., reprinted with permission)
SM.16 ONLINE: Videos of Illusions – Philip Venables & David Hoyle, London Sinfonietta & Sound Intermedia
SM.16.1 The excerpt referred to in the commentary (Section 2, ‘fleshy tube’)
SM.16.2 The video of the complete piece
SM.17 The first (live-performance) version of Scene 5B
SM.17.1 The full score
SM.17.2 An example vocal part – Clare
SM.17.3 An example instrumental part – Saxophone M.
SM.18 The tape part for Scene 5B
SM.18.1 Screenshots showing the arrangement windows in Logic Pro X. Greyed out sections show parts muted during the thinning-out process.
SM.18.2 ONLINE: A recording of the final tape part (stereo mix).
SM.19 Ignas Krunglevičius – Skinner Box (2010)
SM.19.1 Full score (unpublished, courtesy of the composer)
SM.19.2 ONLINE: An excerpt from a performance by NING ensemble.
SM.19.3 ONLINE: A complete performance by NING ensemble
SM.20 The click track for Sarah Hatch (Perc. L: Doctor) for Scene 6, showing the audio annotations / memory aides.
SM.21 An example of the elevator muzak used in the percussion dialogue scenes.
SM.22 Percussion Dialogues scenes – the transcription process
SM.22.1 Scene 6 -– audio of theatre workshop performance
SM.22.2 Scene 6 – handwritten transcription
SM.22.3 Scene 6 – typeset transcription (draft)
SM.22.4 Scene 10 – audio of theatre workshop performance
SM.22.5 Scene 10 – typeset transcription (draft)
SM.22.6 Scene 12 – audio of theatre workshop performance
SM.22.7 Scene 12 – handwritten transcription
SM.22.8 Scene 12 – typeset transcription (draft)
SM.22.9 Scene 23 – audio of theatre workshop performance
SM.22.10 Scene 23 – handwritten transcription
SM.22.11 Scene 23 – typeset transcription (draft)
SM.23 Broadsheet and trade magazine reviews of the opera.


10.3. References and Bibliography

References (in order of citation):

Stockhausen, K. Donnerstag aus Licht (1980), Stockhausen Verlag.
Stravinsky, I. & Nijinsky, V. Le Sacre du Printemps (1913), Boosey & Hawkes.
Sawer, D. Rumpelstiltskin (2009), Universal Edition AG.
Shakespeare, W. Henry V, (1944) dir. Laurence Olivier, music William Walton, produced by Two Cities Films.
Turnage, M. A., Moore, J. Greek (1988) Schott Musikverlag GmbH., after Berkoff, S. Greek (1980).
Neuwirth, O., Jelinek, E. Lost Highway (2003) Boosey & Hawkes, after Lynch, D., Gifford, B. Lost Highway (1997), Ciby2000/Assymetrical Productions.
Glass, P., Wilson, R. (text from Johnson, S. M., Childs, L., Knowles, C.) Einstein on the Beach (1976) Dunvagen Music Publishers inc. / Chester Music.
Furrer B. FAMA (2005) Bärenreiter Musikverlag GmbH, after Schnitzler, A. Fräulein Else (1924).
Walton, W., Sitwell, E. Façade – An Entertainment (1951) Oxford University Press.
Ligeti, G., Meschke, M., Le Grande Macabre (1977, rev. 1996), Schott Musikverlag GmbH, after Ghelderode, M. de, La balade du grand macabre (1934).
Birtwistle, H., Harsent, D., The Minotaur (2008) Boosey & Hawkes.
Poppe, E., Beyer, M. (text from Borroughs, W.), Interzone (2004) Universal Music Gmbh / Ricordi Musikverlag.
Schoenberg, A., Moses und Aron (1932) Edition Eulenberg Verlag GmbH.
Birtwistle, H. Zinovieff, P. The Mask of Orpheus (1984) Universal Edition AG.
Birch, A. Ophelias Zimmer (2015) dir. Katie Mitchell, produced by Schaubühne Berlin. After Shakespeare, W. Hamlet.
Aperghis, G., Recitations (1978), Edition Salabert / Durand Salabert Eschig.
Beckett, S, Not I (1972), Faber. Performance for BBC2 by Billie Whitelaw (1977).
Berio, L. Sinfonia (1969) Universal Edition AG.
Beckett, S. The Unnamable (1953) Les Éditions de Minuit.
Stacey, P. F. Towards the analysis of the relationship of music and text in contemporary composition (Contemporary Music Review, 1989)
Berio, L. Sequenza III (1966) Universal Edition AG.
Berio, L. Laborintus II (1965) Universal Edition AG.
Berio, L. A-Ronne (concert version) (1975) Universal Edition AG.
Furrer, B Begehren (2003) Bärenreiter Musikverlag GmbH.
Reich, S. It’s gonna rain (1965).
Reich, S. Different Trains (1988) Boosey & Hawkes.
The Avalanches, Frontier Psychiatrist from Since I left you (2000), Modular Recordings.
Cassetteboy, Gettin’ piggy with it (2015) Unpublished.
Smith, Will, Gettin’ jiggy wit it (1997), Columbia Records.
Cassetteboy, Jeremy Clarkson on the rampage and David Cameron’s TV acting debut: Cassetteboy remix the news (2015), Guardian Online.
Kane, S. 4.48 Psychosis (2000) Methuen Drama.
Evans, G. L., 2016, The Composer as Auteur: Sarah Kane’s 4.48 Psychosis as an Opera (Unpublished). Conference paper given June 16th 2016 at the the Music Theatre Working Group, International Federation of Theatre Research Conference: ‘Presenting the Theatrical Past‘, Stockholm University, Sweden.
Family Guy (1999–2016, created by Seth MacFarlane, 20th Century Fox)
Memento (2000, dir. Christopher Nolan, Newmarket Films)
Castellucci, R. Hyperion. Briefe eines Terroristen (2013) after Hölderlin, dir/design Romeo Castellucci, produced by Schaubühne Berlin / F.I.N.D. Festival.
Unleashed, music: Philip Venables, direction: Nick Blackburn, self-produced for Tête-à-Tête Opera Festival, Grimeborne Festival and Sound Scotland, 2012
Venables, P. , Hoyle, D. Illusions (2015) unpublished.
Krunglevičius, I. Skinner Box (2010) score, unpublished.
Scottee, Putting words in your mouth (2016). Produced by The Roundhouse, London. 22 Nov–3 Dec 2016.
Lavandier, A., Flamminio, F. Le Premier Meurtre (2016). Co-production by Lille Opera and Le Balcon.


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Brace, A. Stovepipe (Faber & Faber 2009)
Brook, P. The Empty Space (Pelican Books 1968, reprinted 1986)
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Crouch, T. My Arm (Faber & Faber 2003)
Crouch, T. An Oak Tree (Oberon Books 2006)
Crouch, T. The Author (Oberon Books 2009)
Crouch, T. England (Oberon Books 2007)
Crowe, E. V. Kin (Faber & Faber 2010)
Crowe, E. V. A Short Opera for Girls (Unpublished)
Donnelly, J. Bone (Faber & Faber 2004)
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Goode, C. The Forest and the Field (Oberon Modern Plays, 2016)
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Hammond, W., Steward, D. (eds), Verbatim Verbatim (Oberon Books, 2008)
Harrower, D. Knives in Hens (Methuen Drama, Bloomsbury Publishing 2015)
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Hickson, E. Precious Little Talent (NHB Modern Plays 2011)
Kane, S. Complete Plays: Blasted; Phaedra’s Love; Cleansed; Crave; 4.48 Psychosis; Skin (Methuen Drama, Bloomsbury Publishing 2001)
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Lucas, C. Prayer for my enemy (Samuel French 2008)
Macmillan, D. Monster (Oberon Modern Plays, 2008)
Macmillan, D. Lungs (Oberon Modern Plays, 2012)
Macmillan, D. The Most Humane Way to Kill a Lobster (Oberon Modern Plays, 2005)
Nelson, M. The Art of Cruelty: A Reckoning (W.W.Norton & Co 2011)
Neilson, A. Neilson Plays:1 – Normal; Penetrator; Year of the Family; Night Before Christmas; Censor (Methuen Drama, Bloomsbury Publishing 1998)
Orton, J. Loot (Methuen Drama, Bloomsbury Publishing 2006)
Patel, A. D. Music, Language, and the Brain (OUP, 2010).
Payne, N. Wanderlust (Faber & Faber 2010)
Payne, N. Constellations (Faber & Faber 2012)
Prebble, L. ENRON (Bloomsbury 2009)
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Ravenhill, M. Ravenhill Plays: 2 – Mother Clap’s Molly House; The Cut; Citizenship; Pool (no water); Product (Methuen Drama, Bloomsbury Publishing 2014)
Ravenhill, M. Shopping and Fucking (Methuen Drama, Bloomsbury Publishing 1996)
Ravenhill, M. Shoot/Get Treasure/Repeat (Methuen Drama, Bloomsbury Publishing 2014)
Ravenhill, M. The Experiment (Unpublished, 2014)
Ravenhill, M. Goldenchild (Unpublished, 2014)
Ravenhill, M. Screw/Ball (Unpublished, 2015)
Richter, F. State of Emergency (Oberon Modern Plays, 2009)
Richter, F. Small Town Boy (Unpublished, 2013)
Ridley, P. Tender Napalm (Methuen Drama, Bloomsbury Publishing 2011)
Ridley, P. Mercury Fur (Methuen Drama, Bloomsbury Publishing 2013)
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Stenham, P. That Face (Faber & Faber 2007)
Stephens, S. Pornography (Methuen Drama, Bloomsbury Publishing 2008)
Suleiman, S. Subversive Intent (Harvard University Press, 1990)
Zizek, S., Dolar. M. Opera’s Second Death (Routledge, 2002)